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Research Papers

Optimization of Electrode Configuration and Pulse Strength in Irreversible Electroporation for Large Ablation Volumes Without Thermal Damage

[+] Author and Article Information
Yongji Yang

Tumor Ablation Group,
CISR Center,
East China University of Science
and Technology,
Shanghai 200237, China
e-mail: yangyj527@163.com

Michael Moser

Department of Surgery,
University of Saskatchewan,
Saskatoon, SK S7N 0W8, Canada
e-mail: mam3045@mail.usask

Edwin Zhang

Division of Vascular and
Interventional Radiology,
Department of Medical Imaging,
University of Toronto,
Toronto, ON M5T 1W7, Canada
e-mail: edwinmzhang@gmail.com

Wenjun Zhang

Fellow ASME
Tumor Ablation Group,
CISR Center,
East China University of Science
and Technology,
Shanghai 200237, China
e-mail: chris.zhang@usask.ca

Bing Zhang

Mem. ASME
School of Mechatronic Engineering
and Automation,
Shanghai University,
Shanghai 200072, China
e-mail: bingzhang84@shu.edu.cn

1Corresponding authors.

Manuscript received July 13, 2017; final manuscript received November 17, 2017; published online January 17, 2018. Editor: Ahmed Al-Jumaily.

ASME J of Medical Diagnostics 1(2), 021002 (Jan 17, 2018) (8 pages) Paper No: JESMDT-17-2018; doi: 10.1115/1.4038791 History: Received July 13, 2017; Revised November 17, 2017

The aim of this study was to analyze five factors that are responsible for the ablation volume and maximum temperature during the procedure of irreversible electroporation (IRE). The five factors used in this study were the pulse strength (U), the electrode diameter (B), the distance between the electrode and the center (D), the electrode length (L), and the number of electrodes (N). A validated finite element model (FEM) of IRE was built to collect the data of the ablation volume and maximum temperature generated in a liver tissue. Twenty-five experiments were performed, in which the ablation volume and maximum temperature were taken as response variables. The five factors with ranges were analyzed to investigate their impacts on the ablation volume and maximum temperature, respectively, using analysis of variance. Response surface method (RSM) was used to optimize the five factors for the maximum ablation volume without thermal damage (the maximum temperature 50 °C for 90 s). U and L were found with significant impacts on the ablation volume (P < 0.001, and P = 0.009, respectively) while the same conclusion was not found for B, D and N (P = 0.886, P = 0.075 and P = 0.279, respectively). Furthermore, U, D, and N had the significant impacts on the maximum temperature with P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P = 0.003, respectively, while same conclusion was not found for B and L (P = 0.720 and P = 0.051, respectively). The maximum ablation volume of 2952.9960 mm3 without thermal damage can be obtained by using the following set of factors: U = 2362.2384 V, B = 1.4889 mm, D = 7 mm, L = 4.5659 mm, and N = 3. The study concludes that both B and N have insignificant impacts (P = 0.886, and P = 0.279, respectively) on the ablation volume; U has the most significant impact (P < 0.001) on the ablation volume; electrode configuration and pulse strength in IRE can be optimized for the maximum ablation volume without thermal damage using RSM.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Electrical conductivity response of liver tissue during IRE

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Fig. 2

Three-dimensional geometric model of liver tissue with electrode insertions

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Fig. 3

Five types of electrode distributions: (a) two-electrode, (b) triangular three-electrode, (c) square four-electrode, (d) square five-electrode, (e) hexagonal six-electrode, and (f) electrode insertions

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Fig. 4

Comparisons of temperatures from the FEM and in vivo experiment

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Fig. 5

Effects of pulse strength (U) on the (a) ablation volume and (b) maximum temperature

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Fig. 6

Effects of electrode diameter (B) on the (a) ablation volume and (b) maximum temperature

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Fig. 7

Effects of distance between the electrode and the center (D) on the (a) ablation volume and (b) maximum temperature

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Fig. 8

Effects of electrode length (L) on the (a) ablation volume and (b) maximum temperature

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Fig. 9

Effects of number of electrodes (N) on the (a) ablation volume and (b) maximum temperature

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Fig. 10

The optimization results of RSM (the solid line and dashed line represent the optimal solutions and target values of the objective functions, respectively)

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Fig. 11

Tissue death rates of three section views (a) XY plan at Z = 20 mm, (b) XZ plan at Y = 30 mm, (c) YZ plan at X = 30 mm, and (d) temperature distribution in °C after optimization

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