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Research Papers

Particulate Deposition in a Patient With Tracheal Stenosis

[+] Author and Article Information
S. Taherian

Center for Energy and Environmental
Research and Services,
California State University Long Beach,
1250 Bellflower Boulevard,
Long Beach, CA 90840
e-mail: shahab.taherian@csulb.edu

H. R. Rahai, J. Bonifacio, B. Z. Gomez

Center for Energy and Environmental
Research and Services,
California State University Long Beach,
1250 Bellflower Boulevard,
Long Beach, CA 90840

Thomas Waddington

Pulmonary Division Long Beach Veterans
Administration (LBVA) Hospital,
5901 East 7th Street,
Long Beach, CA 90822

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received August 14, 2017; final manuscript received October 13, 2017; published online November 14, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Mihai Mihaescu.

ASME J of Medical Diagnostics 1(1), 011005 (Nov 14, 2017) (10 pages) Paper No: JESMDT-17-2027; doi: 10.1115/1.4038260 History: Received August 14, 2017; Revised October 13, 2017

The presence of obstructions such as tracheal stenosis has important effects on respiratory functions. Tracheal stenosis impacts the therapeutic efficacy of inhaled medications as a result of alterations in particle transport and deposition pattern. This study explores the effects of the presence and absence of stenosis/obstruction in the trachea on air flow characteristics and particle depositions. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed on three-dimensional (3D) patient-specific models created from computed tomography (CT) images. The analyzed model was generated from a subject with tracheal stenosis and includes the airway tree up to eight generations. CT scans of expiratory and inspiratory phases were used for patient-specific boundary conditions. Pre- and post-intervention CFD simulations' comparison reveals the effect of the stenosis on the characteristics of air flow, transport, and depositions of particles with diameters of 1, 2.5, 4, 6, 8, and 10 μm. Results indicate that the existence of the stenosis inflicts a major pressure force on the flow of inhaled air, leading to an increased deposition of particles both above and below the stenosis. Comparisons of the decrease in pressure in each generation between pre- and post-tracheal stenosis intervention demonstrated a significant reduction in pressure following the stenosis, which was maintained in all downstream generations. Good agreements were found using experimental validation of CFD findings with a model of the control subject up to the third generation, constructed via additive layer manufacturing from CT images.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Pre- and post-intervention

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Fig. 2

(a) Experimental setup. (1) lung model with pressure taps, (2) branch flow control valves, (3) manometer, (4) national-instruments data acquisition, (5) sinusoidal pump, and (6) power supply for the pump and flow control valves and (b) schematic of the experimental setup.

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Fig. 3

Velocity magnitude sagittal view, direction of flow from A to A′

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Fig. 4

Velocity and vorticity magnitude sagittal view, pre- intervention, with the direction of flow from A to A′ and B to B′

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Fig. 6

Normalized pressure drop in different generations of a left random branch

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Fig. 7

Normalized pressure drop in different generation of a right random branch

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Fig. 8

Comparison of pressures at different outlets of the airways using CFD and experiment, run 1 (initial model—sinusoidal flow) and run 2 (cleaned model—sinusoidal flow). All branches are at G3. The airway branches are divided into LL- left lower, LU-1—left upper first branch, LU-2—left upper second branch, RL-1—right lower first branch, RL-2—right lower second branch, MR—middle right, UR-1—upper right first branch, UR-2—upper right second branch and UR-3—upper right third branch.

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Fig. 9

Total particle deposition

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Fig. 10

10 μm ((a) and (b)) and 2.5 μm ((c) and (d)) particle depositions for post-intervention ((a) and (c)) and pre-intervention ((b) and (d))

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Fig. 11

PM depositions in different generations, normal tidal volume

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Fig. 12

PM depositions in different generations, 1.5× tidal volume

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