0
Technical Brief

An In Vitro Experimental Study of the Pulse Delivery Method in Irreversible Electroporation

[+] Author and Article Information
Bing Zhang

Mem. ASME
Division of Biomedical Engineering,
University of Saskatchewan,
Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A2, Canada
e-mail: bing.zhang84@usask.ca

Michael A. J. Moser

Department of Surgery,
University of Saskatchewan,
Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A2, Canada
e-mail: mam305@mail.usask.ca

Edwin M. Zhang

Department of Medical Imaging,
Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology,
University of Toronto,
Toronto, ON M5S, Canada
e-mail: edwinmzhang@gmail.com

Jim Xiang

Saskatchewan Cancer Agency,
University of Saskatchewan,
Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A2, Canada
e-mail: jim.xiang@usask.ca

Wenjun Zhang

Fellow ASME
Division of Biomedical Engineering,
University of Saskatchewan,
Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A2, Canada;
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Saskatchewan,
Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A2, Canada
e-mail: chris.zhang@usask.ca

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received July 16, 2017; final manuscript received September 27, 2017; published online November 7, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Osama Mukdadi.

ASME J of Medical Diagnostics 1(1), 014501 (Nov 07, 2017) (6 pages) Paper No: JESMDT-17-2019; doi: 10.1115/1.4038238 History: Received July 16, 2017; Revised September 27, 2017

The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of generating larger ablation volumes using the pulse delivery method in irreversible electroporation (IRE) using a potato model. Ten types of pulse timing schemes and two pulse repetition rates (1 pulse per 200 ms and 1 pulse per 550 ms) were proposed in the study. Twenty in vitro experiments with five samples each were performed to check the effects on the ablation volumes for the ten pulse timing schemes and two pulse repetition rates. At the two pulse repetition rates (1 pulse per 200 ms and 1 pulse per 550 ms), the largest ablation volumes achieved were 1634.1 mm3± 122.6 and 1828.4 mm3±160.9, respectively. Compared with the baseline approach (no pulse delays), the ablation volume was increased approximately by 62.8% and 22.6% at the repetition rates of 1 pulse per 200 ms and 1 pulse per 550 ms, respectively, using the pulse timing approach (with pulse delays). With the pulse timing approach, the ablation volumes generated at the lower pulse repetition rate were significantly larger than those generated at the higher pulse repetition rate (P < 0.001). For the experiments with one pulse train (baseline approach), the current was 5.2 A±0.4. For the experiments with two pulse trains, the currents were 6.4 A±0.9 and 6.8 A±0.9, respectively (P = 0.191). For the experiments with three pulse trains, the currents were 6.6 A±0.6, 6.9 A±0.6, and 6.5 A±0.6, respectively (P = 0.216). For the experiments with five pulse trains, the currents were 6.6 A±0.9, 6.9 A±0.9, 6.5 A±1.0, 6.5 A±1.0, and 5.7 A±1.2, respectively (P = 0.09). This study concluded that: (1) compared with the baseline approach used clinically, the pulse timing approach is able to increase the volume of ablation; but, the pulse timing scheme with the best performance might be various with the tissue type; (2) the pulse timing approach is still effective in achieving larger ablation volumes when the pulse repetition rate changes; but, the best pulse timing scheme might be different with the pulse repletion rate; (3) the current in the base line approach was significantly smaller than that in the pulse timing approach.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Jiang, C. , Davalos, R. V. , and Bischof, J. C. , 2015, “ A Review of Basic to Clinical Studies of Irreversible Electroporation Therapy,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 62(1), pp. 4–20. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Yarmush, M. L. , Golberg, A. , Serša, G. , Kotnik, T. , and Miklavčič, D. , 2014, “ Electroporation-Based Technologies for Medicine: Principles, Applications, and Challenges,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng., 16(1), pp. 295–320. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Kinosita , K., Jr. , Ashikawa, I. , Saita, N. , Yoshimura, H. , Itoh, H. , Nagayama, K. , and Ikegami, A. , 1988, “ Electroporation of Cell Membrane Visualized Under a Pulsed-Laser Fluorescence Microscope,” Biophys. J., 53(6), p. 1015. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Davalos, R. V. , Mir, L. , and Rubinsky, B. , 2005, “ Tissue Ablation With Irreversible Electroporation,” Ann. Biomed. Eng., 33(2), pp. 223–231. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Scheffer, H. J. , Nielsen, K. , de Jong, M. C. , van Tilborg, A. A. , Vieveen, J. M. , Bouwman, A. R. , Meijer, S. , van Kuijk, C. , van den Tol, P. M. , and Meijerink, M. R. , 2014, “ Irreversible Electroporation for Nonthermal Tumor Ablation in the Clinical Setting: A Systematic Review of Safety and Efficacy,” J. Vasc. Interv. Radiol., 25(7), pp. 997–1011. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Zhang, B. , Moser, M. A. , Zhang, E. M. , Luo, Y. , Liu, C. , and Zhang, W. , 2016, “ A Review of Radiofrequency Ablation: Large Target Tissue Necrosis and Mathematical Modelling,” Phys. Med., 32(8), pp. 961–971. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Manuchehrabadi, N. , and Zhu, L. , 2014, “ Development of a Computational Simulation Tool to Design a Protocol for Treating Prostate Tumours Using Transurethral Laser Photothermal Therapy,” Int. J. Hyperthermia, 30(6), pp. 349–361. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Chiang, J. , Birla, S. , Bedoya, M. , Jones, D. , Subbiah, J. , and Brace, C. L. , 2014, “ Modeling and Validation of Microwave Ablations With Internal Vaporization,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 62(2), pp. 657–663. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
ter Haar, G. , and Coussios, C. , 2007, “ High Intensity Focused Ultrasound: Physical Principles and Devices,” Int. J. Hyperthermia, 23(2), pp. 89–104. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Jiang, C. , Qin, Z. , and Bischof, J. , 2014, “ Membrane-Targeting Approaches for Enhanced Cancer Cell Destruction With Irreversible Electroporation,” Ann. Biomed. Eng., 42(1), pp. 193–204. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Jiang, C. , Shao, Q. , and Bischof, J. , 2015, “ Pulse Timing During Irreversible Electroporation Achieves Enhanced Destruction in a Hindlimb Model of Cancer,” Ann. Biomed. Eng., 43(4), pp. 887–895. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Kingham, T. P. , Karkar, A. M. , D'Angelica, M. I. , Allen, P. J. , DeMatteo, R. P. , Getrajdman, G. I. , Sofocleous, C. T. , Solomon, S. B. , Jarnagin, W. R. , and Fong, Y. , 2012, “ Ablation of Perivascular Hepatic Malignant Tumors With Irreversible Electroporation,” J. Am. Coll. Surg., 215(3), pp. 379–387. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Thomson, K. R. , Cheung, W. , Ellis, S. J. , Federman, D. , Kavnoudias, H. , Loader-Oliver, D. , Roberts, S. , Evans, P. , Ball, C. , and Haydon, A. , 2011, “ Investigation of the Safety of Irreversible Electroporation in Humans,” J. Vasc. Interv. Radiol., 22(5), pp. 611–621. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Ben-David, E. , Ahmed, M. , Faroja, M. , Moussa, M. , Wandel, A. , Sosna, J. , Appelbaum, L. , Nissenbaum, I. , and Goldberg, S. N. , 2013, “ Irreversible Electroporation: Treatment Effect Is Susceptible to Local Environment and Tissue Properties,” Radiology, 269(3), pp. 738–747. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Bonakdar, M. , Latouche, E. L. , Mahajan, R. L. , and Davalos, R. V. , 2015, “ The Feasibility of a Smart Surgical Probe for Verification of Ire Treatments Using Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 62(11), pp. 2674–2684. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Neal , R. E., II , Garcia, P. A. , Robertson, J. L. , and Davalos, R. V. , 2012, “ Experimental Characterization and Numerical Modeling of Tissue Electrical Conductivity During Pulsed Electric Fields for Irreversible Electroporation Treatment Planning,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 59(4), pp. 1076–1085. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Sano, M. B. , Fan, R. E. , Hwang, G. L. , Sonn, G. A. , and Xing, L. , 2016, “ Production of Spherical Ablations Using Nonthermal Irreversible Electroporation: A Laboratory Investigation Using a Single Electrode and Grounding Pad,” J. Vasc. Interv. Radiol., 27(9), pp. 1432–1440. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Hjouj, M. , and Rubinsky, B. , 2010, “ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Characteristics of Nonthermal Irreversible Electroporation in Vegetable Tissue,” J. Membr. Biol., 236(1), pp. 137–146. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Yao, C. , Lv, Y. , Dong, S. , Zhao, Y. , and Liu, H. , 2017, “ Irreversible Electroporation Ablation Area Enhanced by Synergistic High- and Low-Voltage Pulses,” PloS One, 12(3), p. e0173181. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Miklovic, T. , Latouche, E. L. , DeWitt, M. R. , Davalos, R. V. , and Sano, M. B. , 2017, “ A Comprehensive Characterization of Parameters Affecting High-Frequency Irreversible Electroporation Lesions,” Ann. Biomed. Eng., epub.
Wandel, A. , Ben-David, E. , Ulusoy, B. S. , Neal, R. , Faruja, M. , Nissenbaum, I. , Gourovich, S. , and Goldberg, S. N. , 2016, “ Optimizing Irreversible Electroporation Ablation With a Bipolar Electrode,” J. Vasc. Interv. Radiol., 27(9), pp. 1441–1450. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Phillips, M. , 2014, “ The Effect of Small Intestine Heterogeneity on Irreversible Electroporation Treatment Planning,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 136(9), p. 091009. [CrossRef]
Silve, A. , Brunet, A. G. , Al-Sakere, B. , Ivorra, A. , and Mir, L. , 2014, “ Comparison of the Effects of the Repetition Rate Between Microsecond and Nanosecond Pulses: Electropermeabilization-Induced Electro-Desensitization?,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1840(7), pp. 2139–2151. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Faroja, M. , Ahmed, M. , Appelbaum, L. , Ben-David, E. , Moussa, M. , Sosna, J. , Nissenbaum, I. , and Goldberg, S. N. , 2013, “ Irreversible Electroporation Ablation: Is All the Damage Nonthermal?,” Radiology, 266(2), pp. 462–470. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Teissie, J. , Golzio, M. , and Rols, M. , 2005, “ Mechanisms of Cell Membrane Electropermeabilization: A Minireview of Our Present (Lack of?) Knowledge,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta., 1724(3), pp. 270–280. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Ivorra, A. , Al-Sakere, B. , Rubinsky, B. , and Mir, L. M. , 2009, “ In Vivo Electrical Conductivity Measurements During and after Tumor Electroporation: Conductivity Changes Reflect the Treatment Outcome,” Phys. Med. Biol., 54(19), p. 5949. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Diagram of ten pulse timing schemes proposed in the study

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for in vitro experiments proposed in the study: (a) experimental setup, (b) IRE electrode, (c) potato with IRE electrode insertion, and (d) ablation zone and caliper

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Representative images of ablation zone of in vitro experiments (the number on each image means the experiment number)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Ablation volumes of in vitro experiments under the same pulse repetition rate: (a) 1 pulse per 200 ms and (b) 1 pulse per 550 ms (*P > 0.05, **P < 0.05, and ***P < 0.001)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Comparisons of ablation volumes of in vitro experiments under the same pulse timing scheme (PR1: 1 pulse per 200 ms and PR2: 1 pulse per 550 ms)

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In