Accepted Manuscripts

Jarred R. MondoƱedo, John S. McNeil, Jacob Herrmann, Brett A. Simon and David W. Kaczka
ASME J of Medical Diagnostics   doi: 10.1115/1.4040001
Volatile anesthetics have been shown to reduce lung resistance through dilation of constricted airways. In this study, we hypothesized that that diffusion of inhaled anesthetics from airway lumen to smooth muscle would yield significant bronchodilation in vivo, and systemic recirculation would not be necessary to reduce lung resistance (RL) and elastance (EL) during sustained bronchoconstriction. To test this hypothesis, we designed a delivery system for precise timing of inhaled volatile anesthetics during the course of a positive pressure breath. We compared changes in RL, EL, and anatomic dead space (VD) in canines during pharmacologically-induced bronchoconstriction with intravenous methacholine, and following treatments with: 1) targeted anesthetic delivery to VD; and 2) continuous anesthetic delivery throughout inspiration. Both sevoflurane and isoflurane were used during each delivery regimen. Compared to continuous delivery, targeted delivery resulted in significantly lower doses of delivered anesthetic and decreased end-expiratory concentrations. However, we did not detect significant reductions in RL or EL for either anesthetic delivery regimen. This lack of response may have resulted from an insufficient dose of the anesthetic to cause bronchodilation, or from the preferential distribution of flow to less constricted regions of the lung, thereby enhancing airway heterogeneity and increasing apparent RL and EL.
Ahmed Mohammed Al Otaibi, Sohel Anwar and M. Terry Loghmani
ASME J of Medical Diagnostics   doi: 10.1115/1.4039661
Instrument assisted soft tissue manipulation (IASTM) is a form of manual therapy which is performed with rigid cast tools. The applied force during the IASTM process has not been quantified or regulated. Nor have the angle of treatment and strokes frequency been quantified which contribute to the overall recovery process. This paper presents a skin modeling analysis used in the design of a novel mechatronic device that measures force in an IASTM application with localized pressures, similar to traditional, non-mechatronic IASTM devices that are frequently used to treat soft tissue dysfunctions. Thus, quantifiable soft tissue manipulation (QSTM) represents an advancement in IASTM. The innovative mechatronic QSTM device is based on 1-D compression load cells, where only four compression force sensors are needed to quantify all force components in 3D space. Here such a novel QSTM mechatronics device is simulated, analyzed, and investigated using finite element analysis. A simplified human arm was modeled to investigate the relationship between the measured component forces, the applied force, and the stress and strain distribution on the skin surface to validate the capability of the QSTM instrument. The results show that the QSTM instrument as designed is able to correlate the measured force components to the applied tool-tip force in a straight movement on the skin model.
TOPICS: Instrumentation, Modeling analysis, Skin, Soft tissues, Compression, Stress, Design, Finite element analysis, Mechatronics, Force sensors, Patient treatment, Mechatronic devices

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